Detailed survey

The measured survey of the site or the route should be plotted to an appropriate scale & should possibly show the following physical details:
• precise boundaries
• rights of way across the route/site
• Position of agates & access roads if it available
• Position of ditches & water courses
• Ponds & wet areas
• Ancient monuments
• Bench marks, level& contours
• Electric & telephone poles, positions of overhead lines including a note of clearance or hared room available.
Having said the information above, we can add other information concerning detailed survey is temporary bench marks are fixed at interval of about 250m & at all drainage & under pass structures. Levels along the final center line should be taken at all staked points. Leveling work is of great importance as the vertical alignment, earth work calculations & drainage details are taken up to be worked out from the level notes. The cross sections & levels taken up to the desired width, at intervals of 50-100m in plane terrain, 50-75m in rolling terrain, 50m in built up areas &20m in hilly terrain.
The cross section may be taken as closer intervals at horizontal curves & where there is abrupt change in cross slopes, all river crossing, valleys etc. should be surveyed in detail up to considerably greater distances on either side. All topographical details are noted down & also plotted using conventional signs, adequate hydrological details are also collected & recorded. And detailed soil survey is carried out to enable drawing the soil profile. Then the data collected during the detailed survey should be elaborate & complete for preparing detailed plan, design & estimates of the project.
Purpose of detail survey
1. To produce a plan to scale of an area of land showing all detail natural & man made.
2. To provide a record in coordinate form of detail with in an area.
3. To provide a longitudinal cross section.
4. To create the controversial plan in detail.
5. To provide ground cross section to make measurement to allow earth work, area & volume to be calculated.
Profile leveling: As the name suggests, it shows a profile that is alone depicting ground elevations at vertical section along above line. This hussar before a rail rood, high way transmission line, and side walk or sewer line can be designed. Usually a line of level is on along the center line of the proposed work. Level is taken at every 15m or maybe 30m interval, at critical points where there is sudden change of levels at the beginning or end of curve. The basic objective is to plot accurately the elevation of the points along the line of levels.
The procedure exactly balanced or same as differential leveling. It is necessary to take staff reading along the center line, book then properly in the level book and compute the reduced level (R.L)’s of different points and apply suitable arithmetic checks. And it is also necessary to start from A.B.M of known R.L also close with known R.L so suitable field checks is applied.
It is not essential the instrument to put at the center line. It can be placed any where if it is necessary off the center line so that large number of readings can be taken and foresights and back sights are made approximately equal Then it is possible or necessarily to plot the profile or longitudinal sections. To show the distortions of the ground elevations are plotted on a much large scale.
After taking a suitable doctum than the longitudinal distances. After the longitudinal pr profile section is drawn it is necessary to have a smooth surface. This is known as a grade hill which is selected on various considerations like
-Minimum amount of cutting and filling of earth work
-Balancing the cut and filling
-Keeping the slope with in allowable limit
Profile Leveling Field Report
1- Before doing the profile leveling, it is possible to check the derived pages whether they are missed or not. And prepare pages that are derived instead of the missing pages.
2- Having refereed the center of the route, we take a series of elevation points on the ground are collected properly.
3- Checking the slopes of the ground elevation are collected at the center of the route.
4- More elevation data are taken when the certain line is cross the streams and drainages and bridges.

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